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Ο σοσιαλισμός δεν είναι πια απαγορευμένη λέξη στις ΗΠΑ

 Αλέξανδρος Ζέρβας

Μέρος 4ο - Αναλύοντας το «φαινόμενο Σάντερς»

Για να έρθουμε όμως στο σήμερα, πολλοί αναλυτές επισημαίνουν πως οι επιτυχίες του Μπέρνι Σάντερς στις προκριματικές του 2016 αλλά και η αυξανόμενη δημοφιλία του έχουν να κάνουν με την προσδοκία ότι αυτός θα μπορούσε να αλλάξει την πολιτική κατεύθυνση ενός από τα παραδοσιακά κόμματα εξουσίας. Είναι χαρακτηριστικό ότι  ούτε ο ανεξάρτητος υποψήφιος, Ραλφ Νέιντερ, αλλά ούτε κι Ντεμπς  είχαν πετύχει τόσο μεγάλη διείσδυση στο εσωτερικό του αμερικάνικου πολιτικού κατεστημένου.

Από την άλλη, ίσως να οφείλεται και στο γεγονός ότι η περίφημη κοινωνική κινητικότητα, που έκανε τους Αμερικάνους τόσο εχθρικούς απένατι στις σοσιαλιστικές ιδέες, έπαψε να ισχύει -στην ανοδική της πορεία- τα τελευταία 40 χρόνια. Με άλλα λόγια, είναι το τέλος του «αμερικάνικου ονείρου» που βάζει το προσκήνιο τον σοσιαλισμό στις ΗΠΑ, καθώς ακόμη κι αυτοί που θεωρητικά το είχαν κατακτήσει βρίσκονται πλέον σε κίνδυνο.

Σε αντίθεση με τη σημερινή πραγματικότητα, ο Λίπσετ θεωρούσε πως η εξαφάνιση της «αμερικάνικη εξαίρεσης» αναφορικά με τον σοσιαλισμό θα ερχόταν μέσω της δεξιόστροφης μετατόπισης των Αριστερών κομμάτων στην Ευρώπη. Συγκεκριμένα, θεωρούσε πως τυχόν υιοθέτηση εκ μέρους τους της πολιτικής των ιδιωτικοποιήσεων του δημόσιου πλούτου αλλά των μεταρρυθμίσεων για την απελευθέρωση της αγοράς εργασίας τους θα τα έφερνε πιο κοντά στο Δημοκρατικό Κόμμα του Μπιλ  Κλίντον.

Προφανώς, ο ίδιος ο Λίπσετ  δεν θα μπορούσε ποτέ να φανταστεί ότι οι νεότερες γενιές θα θεωρούσαν κάποια στιγμή τους εαυτούς τους σοσιαλιστές ούτε ότι πολλοί υποστηρικτές του Δημοκρατικού Κόμματος θα στρέφονταν προς τον Σάντερς, νιώθοντας εγκαταλελειμμένοι από ένα κόμμα, το οποίο υπό τον Μπάρακ Ομπάμα το 2008 είχε «κάνει τα στραβά μάτια», σε μια από τις μεγαλύτερες μεταφορές πλούτου από τα κατώτερα προς τα ανώτερα στρώματα στην αμερικάνικη ιστορία.

Σήμερα ο φορείς των σοσιαλιστικών ιδεών στις ΗΠΑ επιχειρούν να επαναπροσδιορίσουν με διαφορετικούς όρους, θεωρώντας πλέον ότι  εκπροσωπούν περισσότερο τα συμφέροντα ομάδων όπως καθηγητες, νοσοκόμοι, επιστάτες ή υπαλλήλοι εστιατορίων, ανεξαρτήτως φύλου η χρώματος, σε σχέση με τους παραδοσιακούς λευκούς εργάτες, ανθρακωρύχους και μεταλλουργούς, όπου κυριάχησε ο Ντόναλντ Τραμπ.

Προς το παρόν λοιπόν, οι αριστεροί υποστηρικτές των Δημοκρατικών προέρχονται από τη νεότερη γενιά μιας μεσαίας τάξης, η οποία  είναι εξαιρετικά ανήσυχη εξαιτίας της καθοδικής κοινωνικής κινητικότητας. Μένει να αποδειχθεί αν ο κοινωνικός ριζοσπαστισμός μπορεί να αποτελέσει αποτελεσματικό αντίδοτο απέναντι στην δημαγωγία του Τραμπισμού.

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