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Στο σφυρί και η Εγνατία Οδός από κυβέρνηση και ΤΑΙΠΕΔ

Το μεγαλύτερο δίκτυο αυτοκινητοδρόμων της χώρας ξεπουλιέται στα ιδιωτικά συμφέροντα

του Θανάση Ματθαίου

Μέρος 2ο - Τα κέρδη της Εγνατίας

Η Εγνατία Οδός είναι μια υποδομή που τώρα αποδίδει καρπούς. Αυτό το γνωρίζουν όλοι. Άλλωστε και η ίδια η διοίκηση της εταιρείας υποστηρίζει ότι σε βάθος 35ετίας τα καθαρά κέρδη μπορούν να είναι πάνω από 5,3 δισεκατομμύρια, με την ισχύουσα τιμή χρέωσης ανά χιλιόμετρο. Οι παραχωρημένοι αυτοκινητόδρομοι εφαρμόζουν υπερδιπλάσια τιμή ανά χιλιόμετρο. Με τέτοια τιμή χρέωσης των διοδίων, που θα εφαρμοστεί αμέσως από τον παραχωρησιούχο, τα κέρδη υπερδιπλασιάζονται, γιατί το κόστος λειτουργίας παραμένει σχετικά σταθερό, με ενδεχόμενη μείωση λόγω εφαρμογής συστημάτων εξοικονόμησης ενέργειας. Εδώ θα πρέπει να συνυπολογιστεί και ο τεράστιος κύκλος εργασιών που προσφέρεται για τις ιδιωτικές εταιρείες. Η ενασχόλησή τους με τη λειτουργία και τη συντήρηση της οδού τους αποφέρει σημαντική χρηματοδότηση, καθώς οι σημερινές δημόσιες επενδύσεις για νέα έργα δεν μπορούν να καλύψουν την βιωσιμότητά τους.

Κατά τα 15, μέχρι σήμερα, χρόνια λειτουργίας της Εγνατίας Οδού υπό Δημόσιο έλεγχο, έχει αποδειχθεί ότι με τη Δημόσια διαχείριση του δικτύου από την εταιρεία Εγνατία Οδός Α.Ε. διασφαλίζεται η διαφάνεια στις δαπάνες λειτουργίας και συντήρησης, καθώς τα έργα δημοπρατούνται με δημόσιους διαγωνισμούς και ανατίθενται στο μειοδότη, σε αντίθεση με τις παραχωρήσεις όπου «ανατίθενται» σε «συγγενείς» εταιρείες και οι δαπάνες παρουσιάζονται υπερδιπλάσιες.

Ταυτόχρονα, το επίπεδο ασφάλειας της κυκλοφορίας διέπεται από εγκεκριμένες Οδηγίες Λειτουργίας και όχι από τη «βούληση» των ιδιωτών, χωρίς κανένα έλεγχο. Επίσης, τυχόν πρόσθετο κατασκευαστικό αντικείμενο, με τη Δημόσια διαχείριση του αυτοκινητόδρομου, θα προκηρυχθεί και πάλι ως Δημόσιο Έργο, ενώ στην περίπτωση της παραχώρησης οι διαδικασίες είναι αδιαφανείς και ανεξέλεγκτες.

Το σύνολο των εξόδων λειτουργίας και συντήρησης του δικτύου της Εγνατίας Οδού, μαζί με τις λειτουργικές δαπάνες της εταιρείας, αγγίζει τα 50 εκ. ευρώ ετησίως. Τα έσοδά της, με την παρούσα χαμηλή χρέωση διοδίων, υπερβαίνουν τα 100 εκ. Το πλεόνασμα αυτό των εσόδων, περίπου 50 εκ. ευρώ το χρόνο, μπορεί να επιστρέψει στην κοινωνία με άλλα έργα που έχει τόσο πολύ ανάγκη και όχι να καταλήξει ανεξέλεγκτα στις τσέπες των ιδιωτών. Τα χρήματα αυτά, τα οποία προέρχονται από τις τσέπες των μετακινούμενων μέσω των διοδίων, θα μπορούσαν να επενδυθούν σε έργα κατά μήκος της Εγνατίας Οδού, σε όλη τη Βόρεια Ελλάδα και όχι μόνο, θα μπορούσαν να θεραπεύσουν το υπόλοιπο οδικό δίκτυο, το οποίο οφείλει να παρέχει το κράτος σε όσους δεν επιθυμούν να πληρώσουν διόδια. Με έναν σχεδιασμό από το Υπουργείο, θα μπορούσαν να διατεθούν σημαντικά κονδύλια από τα έσοδα της Εγνατίας Οδού στη βελτίωση άλλων δημόσιων υποδομών, στον αντισεισμικό έλεγχο, στην αντιπλημμυρική προστασία.

Εδώ θα πρέπει να προσθέσουμε και ένα ακόμη σημαντικό όφελος από τη δημόσια διαχείριση της οδού. Αν ο δρόμος παραμείνει δημόσιος είναι εφικτό να νομοθετούνται εξαιρέσεις για τις διελεύσεις της οδού, που να αφορούν ευάλωτες κοινωνικές ομάδες ή την τοπική κυκλοφορία. Και αυτό μπορεί να είναι ευμετάβλητο, ανάλογα με τις κοινωνικές και οικονομικές συνθήκες κάτι που σίγουρα δεν μπορεί να συμβαίνει στους ιδιωτικούς αυτοκινητόδρομους. Ακόμα και αν γίνει αυτό στους ιδιωτικούς αυτοκινητόδρομους, ουσιαστικά τη δαπάνη αυτή θα ανακτήσει ο ιδιώτης, ως κρατική επιχορήγηση, με ό,τι αυτό συνεπάγεται.

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