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Πώς ο Τραμπ ανοίγει τον δρόμο στην Κίνα και τη Ρωσία

Μέρος 4ο - Η Κίνα και το «One Belt One Road»

Όταν ο Ξι Ζιπίνγκ εγκαινίασε το One Belt - One Road (OBOR) τον Σεπτέμβριο του 2013 κατά μήκος του Δρόμου του Μεταξιού που συνδέει την Ευρώπη με την Κίνα (το δίκτυο των εμπορικών δρόμων μεταξύ της Κίνας και των κρατών που βρίσκονται στα δυτικά και στα νότια της και σημαντικότερο εμπορικό δίκτυο από την αρχαιότητα μέχρι και την πτώση της Κωνσταντινούπολης, το 1453), το σιδηροδρομικό δίκτυο που συνδέει το Yiwu (κέντρο για περισσότερους από 70.000 προμηθευτές και κατασκευαστές νοτιοανατολικά της Σαγκάης) με την Ευρώπη λειτουργούσε ήδη ένα χρόνο. Μάλιστα, το πρώτο δοκιμαστικό ταξίδι με προορισμό το Ντούισμπουργκ της Γερμανίας είχε γίνει τέσσερα χρόνια νωρίτερα.

Ταξιδεύοντας μέσω Καζακστάν, Ρωσίας, Λευκορωσίας, Πολωνίας, Γερμανίας, Βελγίου, Γαλλίας και Ισπανίας, οι εμπορικές αμαξοστοιχίες χρειάζονται 17 ημέρες για να καλύψουν τα περίπου 7.700 μίλια, μειώνοντας κατά το ήμισυ το κόστος της μεταφοράς μέσω θαλασσίων οδών και κατά 9/10 μέσω αερομεταφορών. Υπολογίζεται ότι μέχρι το 2020 περισσότερα από 7,5 εκατ. εμπορευματοκιβώτια θα φεύγουν από κινεζικές πόλεις όπως το Yiwu προς ευρωπαϊκούς προορισμούς.

Σύμφωνα με το σχέδιο, το One Belt - One Road θα συνδέει στο μέλλον την Κίνα, τη Νοτιοανατολική Ασία, τη Νότια Ασία, την Κεντρική και Δυτική Ασία, τη Μέση Ανατολή, τη Ανατολική Αφρική και την Κεντρική και Ανατολική Ευρώπη. Θα περιλαμβάνει, μεταξύ άλλων, την κατασκευή αγωγών πετρελαίου και φυσικού αερίου, αυτοκινητοδρόμων, σιδηροδρομικών γραμμών, λιμένων βαθέων υδάτων και μονάδων παραγωγής ενέργειας. Η χρηματοδότηση προέρχεται από κινεζικές τράπεζες, κοινοπραξίες και την Ασιατική Διεθνή Τράπεζα Επενδύσεων, μία επίσης σημαντική πρωτοβουλία της Κίνας.

Όταν ο πρωθυπουργός της Καμπότζης Hun Sen σχολίασε ότι «κάποιες χώρες έχουν πολλές ιδέες αλλά όχι χρήμα, αλλά στην περίπτωση της Κίνας η ιδέα έρχεται πάντα μαζί με το χρήμα» διατύπωνε μία άποψη που πλέον είναι ευρέως διαδεδομένη.

Τον περασμένο Μάιο, ο Κινέζος πρόεδρος απευθυνόμενος σε σύνοδο στην οποία έδωσαν το «παρών» 70 αρχηγοί κρατών και επικεφαλής διεθνών οργανισμών στο Πεκίνο, υποσχέθηκε πρόσθετη χρηματοδότηση ύψους 113 δισεκατομμυρίων δολαρίων για το One Belt - One Road παροτρύνοντας χώρες σε όλο τον κόσμο να συμμετάσχουν σε αυτό. «Δεν έχουμε καμία πρόθεση να δημιουργήσουμε μια μικρή ομάδα επιζήμια για τη σταθερότητα. Ελπίζουμε να δημιουργήσουμε μια μεγάλη οικογένεια αρμονικής συνύπαρξης» δήλωνε ο Κινέζος πρόεδρος.

Παρότι είχαν προσκληθεί, ΗΠΑ και Ινδία απείχαν. Τότε ο Αμερικανός υπουργός Άμυνας Τζέιμς Μάτις πιάνοντας το πνεύμα της συγκυρίας είπε για τις ΗΠΑ: «Σε έναν παγκοσμιοποιημένο κόσμο υπάρχουν πολλές ζώνες και δρόμοι και κανένα κράτος δεν πρέπει να υπαγορεύει ‘μία ζώνη, μία οδό’. Αλλά, αυτήν την περίοδο, οι ΗΠΑ δεν προσφέρουν ούτε ζώνες, ούτε οδούς σε κανέναν».

Σύμφωνα με τον Economist, το 86% των έργων OBOR που ήδη βρίσκονται σε εξέλιξη χρησιμοποιούν Κινέζους εργολάβους, γεγονός που επιτρέπει στην Κίνα να χρησιμοποιήσει το πλεόνασμα της παραγωγής της σε χάλυβα και τσιμέντο. Το Πεκίνο έχει δεσμευτεί να επενδύσει 46 δισεκατομμύρια δολάρια σε έναν οικονομικό διάδρομο Κίνας - Πακιστάν, ο οποίος θα περιλαμβάνει αναβάθμιση σε αγωγούς και αυτοκινητόδρομους που θα συνδέουν τη δυτική Κίνα με τον λιμένα βαθέων υδάτων του Πακιστάν Gwadar στην Αραβική Θάλασσα. Το Gwadar απέχει λιγότερο από 400 μίλια από τα Στενά του Χορμούζ, που θεωρείται πέρασμα μεγάλης σημασίας για τα πετρελαιοφόρα. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι το αργό πετρέλαιο που αποστέλλεται από τους λιμένες του Περσικού Κόλπου στην Κίνα σύντομα θα αρχίσει να φτάνει στο κινεζικό έδαφος με αγωγό. Το ταξίδι διά θαλάσσης θα μειωθεί δραματικά, με αποτέλεσμα μεγάλη εξοικονόμηση χρόνου και πόρων.

Η πολιτική του Πεκίνου να χαράξει οδούς στο εξωτερικό και να επεκτείνει την έννοια του OBOR πέρα από την Ευρασία, ιδιαίτερα στην Αφρική, ήταν εντυπωσιακή. Μεταξύ 1976 και 2016, για παράδειγμα, η Κίνα δημιούργησε πέντε μεγάλες σιδηροδρομικές γραμμές στην Αφρική, απασχολώντας 50.000 Κινέζους για να ολοκληρώσει τη γραμμή Τανζανία - Ζάμπια, 1.150 μιλίων. Οκτώ ακόμη σιδηροδρομικά έργα βρίσκονται σε εξέλιξη.

Στο πρόσφατο Παγκόσμιο Οικονομικό Φόρουμ στο Νταβός, οι Κινέζοι παρουσίασαν ένα ακόμη φιλόδοξο σχέδιο στο πλαίσιο του, OBOR που συνδέεται και επηρεάζεται από την κλιματική αλλαγή. Ο λόγος για το «Polar Silk Road» (ένα πολικό δρόμο του μεταξιού) που σύμφωνα με τους New York Times «θα συνδέσει την Κίνα με την Ευρώπη και τον Ατλαντικό μέσω μίας θαλάσσιας οδού η οποία θα περνάει από τους λιωμένους πάγους της Αρκτικής». Σε αυτό το πλαίσιο, η πολιτική του Τραμπ «Πρώτα η Αμερική» δεν πρέπει να θεωρείται τίποτα λιγότερο παρά ένα πραγματικό «μεγάλο πρωτάθλημα» για την άνοδο της Κίνας.

Πηγή, σύνδεσμοι:


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