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Ενα ιμπεριαλιστικό σφαγείο... δι’ ασήμαντον αφορμήν

του Γιώργου Πετρόπουλου

Μέρος 2ο - Οι αιτίες του πολέμου

Αν θέλουμε να κατανοήσουμε έναν πόλεμο, πρέπει να κατανοήσουμε και το οικονομικο-κοινωνικό περιβάλλον μέσα στο οποίο αυτός διεξάγεται. Επομένως το ίδιο ακριβώς πρέπει να κάνουμε για να βρούμε τις αιτίες του: να κοιτάξουμε τις οικονομικο-κοινωνικές εξελίξεις που προηγήθηκαν.

Είναι αλήθεια ότι προς τα τέλη του 19ου και στις αρχές του 20ού αιώνα ο παλιός καπιταλισμός του ελεύθερου ανταγωνισμού μετασχηματίζεται σε μονοπωλιακό καπιταλισμό-ιμπεριαλισμό. Εδώ δεν είναι δυνατόν να περιγράψουμε ολόκληρη αυτή την πορεία. Θα δώσουμε μόνο ορισμένα στοιχεία ενδεικτικά για κάθε μία από τις μεγάλες δυνάμεις της εποχής.

Στη Γερμανία, π.χ., το 1905 υπήρχαν το λιγότερο 285 καρτέλ που συνένωναν στους κόλπους τους 12 χιλιάδες επιχειρήσεις, παρήγαν τα 3/5 σχεδόν από τον συνολικό όγκο των προϊόντων και κυριαρχούσαν στους σπουδαιότερους κλάδους της βιομηχανίας.

Το 1911 τα καρτέλ έφτασαν τα 550 με 600. Γιγάντια μονοπωλιακά συγκροτήματα συνδεδεμένα στενά με τις μεγαλύτερες τράπεζες συγκέντρωναν στα χέρια τους ολόκληρους κλάδους της βιομηχανίας και η οικονομική δύναμη είχε συγκεντρωθεί στα χέρια μιας μικρής ομάδας μονοπωλητών.

Στις ΗΠΑ, το 1901 είχαν ιδρυθεί 75 τραστ που συνένωναν περισσότερες από 1.600 επιχειρήσεις με συνολικό μετοχικό κεφάλαιο περίπου 3 δισ. δολάρια. Οι μονοπωλιακές αυτές επιχειρήσεις στο διάστημα 1903-1905 έδιναν το 75% της παραγωγής γαιάνθρακα, το 84% της παραγωγής πετρελαίου κ.ο.κ.

Από κοντά, αλλά με διαφορετικούς ρυθμούς και ιδιαιτερότητες, αναπτύχθηκαν τα μονοπώλια και στις υπόλοιπες ισχυρές χώρες εκείνης της εποχής, στην Αγγλία, τη Γαλλία, την Ιαπωνία, τη Ρωσία, την Αυστροουγγαρία κ.λπ.

Τα αγγλικά, για παράδειγμα, μονοπώλια οργανώνονταν κυρίως στους βιομηχανικούς κλάδους, που συνδέονταν άμεσα με την εκμετάλλευση του φυσικού πλούτου στις αποικίες και στις εξαρτημένες χώρες, γεγονός που ερμηνεύεται εύκολα αν ληφθεί υπόψη η αποικιοκρατική μορφή του αγγλικού καπιταλισμού.

Εντυπωσιακή ήταν επίσης και η ανάπτυξη του τραπεζιτικού κεφαλαίου, το οποίο ραγδαία συμφύονταν με το βιομηχανικό, δημιουργώντας έτσι το χρηματιστικό κεφάλαιο.

Στις αρχές του 20ού αιώνα στη Γερμανία κυριαρχούσαν εννέα μεγάλες τράπεζες του Βερολίνου, με πιο ισχυρές τη «Γερμανική Τράπεζα» και την «Εταιρεία Προεξοφλήσεων». Στη Γαλλία κυριαρχούσαν τρεις τράπεζες και στις ΗΠΑ δύο που συνδέονταν άμεσα με τα χρηματιστικά συγκροτήματα Ροκφέλερ και Μόργκαν.

Στην Αγγλία οι τράπεζες στην ανάπτυξή τους ακολουθούν τον αποικιακό χαρακτήρα του βρετανικού κεφαλαίου. Στα 1904 υπήρχαν 50 αποικιακές τράπεζες με 2.279 αποικιακά παραρτήματα, όταν οι γαλλικές τράπεζες, για την ίδια χρονική περίοδο είχαν 136 αποικιακά παραρτήματα και οι γερμανικές 70. Στα 1910 τα αποικιακά παραρτήματα των αγγλικών τραπεζών έφτασαν τα 5.449 (Ακαδημία Επιστημών ΕΣΣΔ, «Παγκόσμια Ιστορία», εκδόσεις Μέλισσα, τόμος Ζ2, σσ. 563-624).

Με το ξημέρωμα του 20ού αιώνα εμφανίζεται σε γιγαντιαίες διαστάσεις η εξαγωγή κεφαλαίου και ο ανταγωνισμός των πολυεθνικών μονοπωλίων για το μοίρασμα των αγορών και σφαιρών επιρροής ανάμεσά τους.

Ενας ανταγωνισμός που προκαλούσε συνεχείς τριβές ανάμεσα στα ισχυρά κράτη της εποχής, μεγάλες κρίσεις, όπως η μαροκινή κρίση στα 1905-1906 και 1911 και η βοσνιακή στα 1908-1909, αλλά και περιφερειακούς πολέμους όπως ο ισπανοαμερικανικός στα 1898, ο πόλεμος των Αγγλων εναντίον των Μπόερς στα 1899-1902, ο Ρώσο-ιαπωνικός πόλεμος στα 1903-1904, ο Ιταλοτουρκικός στα 1911-1912 και οι Βαλκανικοί πόλεμοι 1912-1913.

Υστερα απ’ όλα αυτά δεν χωράει αμφιβολία πως ο Α΄ Παγκόσμιος Πόλεμος δεν μοιάζει καθόλου με κεραυνό εν αιθρία αλλά με τη φυσική συνέπεια όσων προηγήθηκαν της έκρηξής του.

Πηγή:


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