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Πάλι καλά που δε γίναμε Ισλανδία

«Νομίζεις δεν ξέρω πως οι τράπεζες λειτουργούν σαν κοράκια, ότι πίνουν το αίμα του κοσμάκη, ότι στο τέλος θα βγούνε πάλι κερδισμένοι οι τραπεζίτες; Αλλά τι να κάνουμε; Έχουμε ανάγκη από τραπεζικό σύστημα, στο σημείο που φτάσαμε δεν υπάρχει άλλη λύση», μου έλεγε τις προάλλες έμπειρος συνάδελφος του οικονομικού ρεπορτάζ.

του Αλέξανδρου Ζέρβα

Η αλήθεια είναι πως σήμερα ελάχιστους θα βρει κανείς να υπερασπιστούν δημόσια το δίκιο των τραπεζών. Κι όμως, πριν από ελάχιστες μέρες, η μεγάλη πλειοψηφία των κομμάτων της Βουλής βάλανε στην άκρη τις διαφορές τους για χάρη της ανακεφαλαιοποίησης των τραπεζών. Κανείς από τους παριστάμενους βουλευτές δεν έκανε τον κόπο να ρωτήσει που πήγανε περίπου 77 δις ευρώ από τις δύο προηγούμενες ανακεφαλαιοποιήσεις, κανείς δε ζήτησε να υπάρξει στοιχειώδης έλεγχος για τις γενικότερες πρακτικές της τελευταίας εικοσαετίας που κατέστησαν το τραπεζικό σύστημα χρεοκοπημένο.

Είναι το ίδιο τραπεζικό σύστημα που θα κληθεί να διαχειριστεί ένα τόσο λεπτό ζήτημα, όπως εκείνο των κόκκινων δανείων. Κι απ’ ότι μαθαίνουμε από τα δημοσιεύματα των εφημερίδων σχετικά με τις ρυθμίσεις που προβλέπει σχετική οδηγία της Τράπεζας της Ελλάδος προς τις εμπορικές τράπεζες, πολλοί δανειολήπτες αναμένεται να βρεθούν σε ακόμη μεγαλύτερη απόγνωση.

Το γελοίο της υπόθεσης είναι πως δεν μπαίνουν στο στόχαστρο μόνο οι ίδιοι, αλλά ακόμη κι οι συγγενείς τους, εφόσον ισχύσει η πρόβλεψη για «επιμήκυνση του δανείου πέραν του προσδόκιμου ζωής του δανειολήπτη με μεταφορά βαρών στους εγγυητές – κληρονόμους». Φανταστείτε μόνο πόσες φορές θα καταβληθεί το αρχικό κεφάλαιο του δανείου στην τράπεζα μέσω μιας τέτοιας ρύθμισης. Ίσως όμως πάλι σε κάποιον η παραπάνω ρύθμιση να φανεί μέχρι κι ευνοϊκή, αν αναλογιστεί ότι μια άλλη «εναλλακτική» που θα προσφέρεται στον εκάστοτε δανειολήπτη θα είναι να χάσει εν μία νυκτί το σπίτι του, η κυριότητα του οποίου θα μεταβιβάζεται στην τράπεζα, ενώ ο ίδιος θα μετατρέπεται σε απλό ενοικιαστή του. Κι όλα αυτά με τις τράπεζες από θέση ισχύος, καθώς με την ουσιαστική άρση της προστασίας των υπερχρεωμένων νοικοκυριών μέσω του νέου κώδικα Πολιτικής Δικονομίας, που ψηφίστηκε το καλοκαίρι, τυχόν κατάσχεση ακινήτου έχει γίνει πια πολύ απλή υπόθεση.

Από την άλλη, το μεγαλύτερο πρόβλημα ίσως να μην είναι η ασυδοσία εκ μέρους των τραπεζών. Αυτές, άλλωστε, ήταν συνηθισμένες να κάνουν μπίζνες με τα λεφτά των καταθετών κι όταν ζορίζονται να τροφοδοτούνται με τα χρήματα των φορολογουμένων. Το ζήτημα είναι πως αυτή η νοσηρή κατάσταση είναι δεδομένο πως θα διαιωνιστεί. Μην ξεχνάμε πως η κυβέρνηση Τσίπρα έχει αποδεχτεί (μέσω του 3ου Μνημονίου βεβαίως βεβαίως) την εκχώρηση του ελέγχου του τραπεζικού συστήματος στο Ταμείο Χρηματοπιστωτικής Σταθερότητας, τον έλεγχο του οποίου κατ’ ουσίαν έχουν οι δανειστές.

Κάτι τέτοια πρέπει να βλέπει κι ο Ισλανδός πρωθυπουργός και δηλώνει πλέον δημοσίως «πάλι καλά που δε γίναμε Ελλάδα». Μιλάμε για μια χώρα που, μετά από μια βαθιά όσο και σκληρή οικονομική κρίση το 2008, άφησε τις δικές της χρεοκοπημένες ιδιωτικές τράπεζες να καταρρεύσουν, απέφυγε να πάρει εκτεταμένα μέτρα λιτότητας, ενώ αρνήθηκε να αποζημιώσει Βρετανούς κι Ολλανδούς καταθέτες, παρότι ήξερε πως κάτι τέτοιο θα την οδηγούσε στα διεθνή δικαστήρια. Από την άλλη, το ισλανδικό κράτος έχει οδηγήσει μέχρι στιγμής ενώπιον της δικαιοσύνης 26 άτομα, μεταξύ των οποίων αρκετοί κορυφαίοι πολιτικοί καθώς κι έξι διευθυντές τραπεζών.

Μετά απ’ όλα αυτά (η διετία 2008-2010 ήταν αρκετά δύσκολη για τη χώρα), η ισλανδική οικονομία έχει φτάσει στο σημείο φέτος να αναπτύσσεται κατά 3,5%, ενώ το δημόσιο χρέος έχει υποχωρήσει στο 64% του ΑΕΠ. Ο Ισλανδός πρωθυπουργός, David Gunnlaugsson, έχει εξήγηση για όλα αυτά, καθώς όπως επισημαίνει «Αν όλα αυτά τα χρέη ήταν σε ευρώ και αναγκαζόμασταν να κάνουμε ότι η Ιρλανδία ή η Ελλάδα και να αναλάβουμε την ευθύνη για τα χρέη των τραπεζών, θα ήταν καταστροφικό για μας οικονομικά. Είμαι σίγουρος πως η ανάκαμψη μας δεν θα είχε συμβεί αν ήμασταν μέλος της Ε.Ε.». Να σημειωθεί πως η Ισλανδία πάγωσε το 2013 τις ενταξιακές διαπραγματεύσεις και ο κ. Gunnlaugsson απέσυρε την υποψηφιότητα στις αρχές του έτους.

Με απλά λόγια, έκαναν ακριβώς το αντίθετο από εκείνο που έπραξαν οι μέχρι σήμερα ελληνικές κυβερνήσεις. Μήπως τελικά δεν είμαστε και τόσο τυχεροί που δε γίναμε (έστω κάτι σαν την) Ισλανδία;

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