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Manifestua "Azken deia"

Krisi ekonomikoa edo erregimen krisia baino gehiago da hau: zibilizazio krisia da

Europako herritarrek, orokorrean, onartzen dute gaur egungo kontsumo gizartea etorkizunerantz “hobetu” daitekeela (eta egin behar duela). Bitartean, planetako biztanleen zati eder bat gure ongizate materialen mailara iristeko zain da. Alta, produkzio eta kontsumo maila hau baliabide natural eta energetikoak ahituz lortu da, eta Lurraren ekologia orekak hautsiz.

Kontua ez da berria. Ikertzaile eta zientzialari buruargienak alarmarako zantzu sendoak ematen ari zaizkigu XX. mendeko zazpigarren hamarkadatik hona: orain arteko hazkunde joerekin jarraituz gero (ekonomikoa, demografikoa, baliabideen erabilera, kutsatzaileen ekoizpena eta desberdintasunen hazkundearekikoa) XXI. menderako ondorio probableena zibilizazio kolapsoa da.

Hazkundearen bidea jadanik genozidioa kamera geldoan dela adierazten duten albisteak pilatzen dira gaur. Energia merkearen eskuragarritasuna gainbehera, aldaketa klimatikoaren eszena katastrofikoak eta baliabideengatiko tentsio geopolitikoek erakusten dute aitzinamendurako joera zaharrak eteten ari direla.

Erronka honen aurrean ez dira aski garapen iraunkorraren mantra ekosmetikoak, ez eta teknologia ekoefizienteen aldeko apustu soilak ere, edo balizko “ekonomia berde” bat, ondare naturalen eta zerbitzu ekosistemikoen merkantilizazioa ezkutatzen dituena. Konponbide teknologikoak, ingurumen krisiari eta gainbehera energetikoari dagokionean, gutxiegi dira.

Gainera, krisi ekologikoa ez da gai partziala, gizartearen alde guztiak zehazten dituena baizik: elikadura, garraioa, industria, eraikuntza, gatazka belikoak… Finean, gure ekonomiaren eta bizitzen oinarria da.

Harrapatuta gaude hazten ez bada ez dabilen zibilizazioan, eta hazten bada bera posible egiten duten oinarri naturalak suntsitzen dituenean. Gure kultura teknozale eta merkatuzaleak ahaztu egiten du gu, errotik, ekosistemen eta elkarren dependiente garela.

Planetak ezin du gizarte produktibista eta kontsumista mantendu. Handitzen ari den giza populazio erraldoi bati (gaur egun 7200 milioitik gora), baliabideak urritzen ari diren planetan, bizitza duina bermatuko dion zibilizazio berria eraiki behar dugu. Horretarako errotiko aldaketak beharko dira bizimoduetan, produkzio moduetan, hirien diseinuan eta lurralde antolaketan: eta batez ere aurreko guztia gidatzen duten baloreetan. Biosferarekin oreka berreskuratzea helburu duen gizartea behar dugu, ikerkuntza, teknologia, kultura, ekonomia eta politika helburu horretarako erabiltzen dituena. Hori egiteko erakutsi ditzakegun irudimen politiko, eskuzabaltasun moral eta sormen teknikoa behar ditugu.

Baina Transformazio Handi honek bi oztopo itzel ditu: bizimodu kapitalistaren inertzia eta talde pribilegiatuen interesak. Kaosa eta basakeriarantz jarraitzea saihesteko, indarrean den hegemoniarekin haustura politiko sakona behar dugu, eta biosferaren mugen barnean gizartearen beharrizanak asetzea helburu duen ekonomia, eta ez hazkundea eta irabazte pribatua.

Zorionez, gero eta jende gehiago ari da erreakzionatzen, eliteen hutsak ordaindu ditzaten saiatzen direnean. Gaur egun, espainiar Estatuan, M15ak (2011ko udaberritik) ekarri duen duintasun eta demokrazia iratzartzea beste gizarte antolaketa batzuek posible egiten dituen prozesu konstituziogilea mamitzen ari da.

Hala ere, ezinbestekoa da proiektu alternatiboek kontzientzia hartzea hazkundearen mugek dakartzaten inplikazioez eta aldakuntza proposamen askoz ere adoretsuagoak egitea. Erregimen eta ekonomia krisia, krisi ekologikoa gainditzen bada soilik gainditu ahalko dira. Zentzu honetan, ez dira aski kapitalismo keynesiarraren errezetak. Politika hauek, bigarren mundu gudaren ondorengo hamarkadetan, planetaren mugen atarira eraman gintuen hedatze zikloa ekarri zuten. Beste hedatze ziklo bat bideraezina da: ez dago mantenduko lukeen oinarri materialik, ez eta espazio ekologikorik edo baliabide naturalik ere.

XXI. mendea gizateriaren menderik erabakiorrena izango da. Kultura eta gizarte guztientzako proba handia izango da, eta espeziearentzat bere osotasunean. Gizakiok Lurrean bizitzen jarraituko dugunentz zehaztuko duen proba izango da eta ondoren antolatuko dugun bizitza errukitsu izateko aukera. Parean dugun transformazioaren erronka neolitoko iraultza edo industria-iraultzaren mailako gertakari historikoen neurrikoa da.

Adi: abagunearen atea ixten ari da. Egia da erresistentzia mugimendu asko daudela munduan zehar ingurumen justiziaren alde (Global Witness erakundeak ia mila anbientalista hildako erregistratu ditu azken hamar urteetan bakarrik, meatzaritza edo petrolio erauzketa proiektuen aurka borrokan ari zirela, haien lur eta urak babesten). Baina gehienez ere bosturte bat dugu hazkundearen mugei buruzko eztabaida zabal eta transbertsala sendotzeko, eta demokratikoki alternatiba ekologiko eta energetiko zehatz eta bideragarriak eraikitzeko. Gai izan behar genuke ekonomia, energia, gizarte eta kultura eredu aldaketa baten alde gehiengo handiak lortzeko. Boterearen menderatzeko erabileratik eta aberastasunen pilatzetik eratorritako bidegabekerien aurka borrokatzeaz gain, errealitatea onartuko duen eredu batez ari gara, naturarekin baketuko dena eta Lurraren mugen ekologikoen barnean bizi ona posible egingo duena.

Zibilizazio bat amaitzen ari da eta beste bat eraiki behar dugu. Ezer ez egitearen ondorioek —edo gutxiegi egitearenak— zuzenean garamatzate gizarte, ekonomia eta ekologiaren kolapsora. Baina gaur hasiz gero, oraindik izan gaitezke gizarte solidario eta demokratiko baten protagonista, planetarekin bakean.

Iberiar Penintsulako toki anitzetan, Balearretan, Kanarietan, Ceutan eta Melillan 2014ko udan

Itzulpena: Mikel Gartzia

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