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Το πραγματικό Matrix της εποχής μας


Στο πολύ ενδιαφέρον του άρθρο Colonizing the Western Mind, ο Jason Hirthler αναφέρεται στον Ιταλό φιλόσοφο Αντόνιο Γκράμσι ο οποίος εισήγαγε την έννοια της πολιτισμικής ηγεμονίας. Ο Γκράμσι πρότεινε ότι οι κυρίαρχες ιδεολογίες της άρχουσας τάξης έχουν διεισδύσει σε τέτοιο βαθμό στη λαϊκή συνείδηση, που οι εργατικές τάξεις συχνά υποστηρίζουν ηγέτες και ιδέες που είναι αντίθετες με τα ίδια τους τα συμφέροντα.

Η πρόταση του Γκράμσι απεικονίζεται στη γνωστή σκηνή της δημοφιλούς ταινίας επιστημονικής φαντασίας The Matrix, στην οποία ο Μορφέας εξηγεί στον Νίο, τι είναι το Matrix:

           Το Matrix είναι ένα σύστημα Νίο. Αυτό το σύστημα είναι ο εχθρός μας. Αλλά όταν είσαι μέσα τι βλέπεις γύρω σου; Επιχειρηματίες, δασκάλους, δικηγόρους, μαραγκούς. Τα μυαλά των ανθρώπων που προσπαθούμε να σώσουμε. Αλλά μέχρι να το κάνουμε, αυτοί οι άνθρωποι είναι μέρος του συστήματος και αυτό τους κάνει εχθρούς μας. Πρέπει να καταλάβεις ότι οι περισσότεροι από αυτούς τους ανθρώπους δεν είναι έτοιμοι να αποσυνδεθούν. Και πολλοί από αυτούς είναι τόσο εθισμένοι, τόσο απελπισμένα εξαρτημένοι από αυτό το σύστημα, που θα πολεμήσουν για να το προστατέψουν.


Στην Υγιή Κοινωνία ο Erich Fromm περιγράφει κάτι παρόμοιο:

           Τι είδους ανθρώπους χρειάζεται η κοινωνία; Ποιος είναι ο "κοινωνικός χαρακτήρας" που ταιριάζει στον καπιταλισμό του 20ου αιώνα; Χρειάζεται ανθρώπους που συνεργάζονται ομαλά σε μεγάλες ομάδες, που θέλουν να καταναλώνουν όλο και περισσότερο και που έχουν τυποποιημένα γούστα τα οποία μπορούν εύκολα να επηρεαστούν και να προβλεφθούν. Χρειάζεται ανθρώπους που νοιώθουν ελεύθεροι και ανεξάρτητοι, που δεν υπόκεινται σε καμιά εξουσία, αρχή ή συνείδηση, αλλά ταυτόχρονα είναι πρόθυμοι να δέχονται διαταγές, να κάνουν ότι τους ζητούν, να ενσωματώνονται μέσα στην κοινωνική μηχανή χωρίς προστριβές.

Με άλλα λόγια, σχεδόν σε κάθε ιστορική περίοδο, οι κοινωνικοί, πολιτικοί και οικονομικοί παράμετροι μιας κοινωνίας, αυτό που θα μπορούσαμε να αποκαλέσουμε ως Matrix, καθορίζονται από τις κυρίαρχες τάξεις προκειμένου να εξασφαλίσουν την κυριαρχία τους μέσω της συναίνεσης της πλειοψηφίας. Αυτό το Matrix είναι στην ουσία ένας πολιτισμικός ολοκληρωτισμός μέσω του οποίου το άτομο εκπαιδεύεται να υπηρετεί το κυρίαρχο σύστημα από την ημέρα που γεννιέται.

Κατά τη διάρκεια των τελευταίων περίπου τεσσάρων δεκαετιών, η νεοφιλελεύθερη ιδεολογία έχει διεισδύσει στα μυαλά ολόκληρων γενεών, διαμορφώνοντάς τα πολιτισμικά τους χαρακτηριστικά. Ουσιαστικά, ένα σημαντικό κομμάτι της Generation X γενιάς καθώς και ολόκληρη η Generation Y (Millennials) γενιά, έχουν γεννηθεί και μεγαλώσει μέσα σε αυτόν τον πολιτισμικό ολοκληρωτισμό του νεοφιλελευθερισμού, βασικά χαρακτηριστικά του οποίου αποτελούν ο ριζοσπαστικός ατομικισμός, ο οικονομικός κυνισμός και ο αδιάκοπος καταναλωτισμός. Αυτός ο πολιτισμικός ολοκληρωτισμός είναι ουσιαστικά το Matrix της εποχής μας.

Ο Hirthler καταλήγει:

           Σήμερα, αυτή η πολιτισμική ηγεμονία είναι ο νεοφιλελευθερισμός. Λίγοι μπορούν να ξεφύγουν από τον έλεγχο του για αρκετό καιρό προκειμένου να δουν τον κόσμο μέσα από μια πλεονεκτική, αποστασιοποιημένη θέση. Πολύ σπάνια θα συναντήσετε επιχειρήματα σαν και αυτό σε κάποιο φύλλο των Times ή σε άλλα γνωστά φύλλα. Δεν ταιριάζουν με το κυρίαρχο δόγμα, την Weltanschauung (κοσμοθέαση) που κρατάει το μυαλό του κοινού σε καταστολή.

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