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Fake ή όχι, αυτό το iPhone το έφτιαξε ο δημόσιος τομέας, όχι ο καπιταλισμός

Η κυκλοφορία μιας φωτογραφίας με ένα νεαρό χίπστερ να φωτογραφίζεται με φόντο επεισόδια στο Αμβούργο κάνει το γύρο του διαδικτύου, παρά το γεγονός ότι αρκετοί αμφισβητούν τη γνησιότητά της.

Το βασικό επιχείρημα όσων την χρησιμοποίησαν είναι ότι ένας διαδηλωτής που διαθέτει ένα ακριβό τηλέφωνο iPhone δεν δικαιούται να διαμαρτύρεται εναντίον του καπιταλισμού ο οποίος, όπως υποστηρίζουν, κατασκεύασε τα iPhone.

Το επιχείρημα υπονοεί ότι κάθε επιστημονική και τεχνολογική ανακάλυψη οφείλεται στον καπιταλισμό. Για αυτές που έγιναν πριν από την δημιουργία του καπιταλιστικού συστήματος παραγωγής… βλέπουμε.

Ας ακολουθήσουμε όμως για λίγο αυτή τη νηπιακή σκέψη για να θέσουμε ένα ερώτημα. Έφτιαξαν πραγματικά οι καπιταλιστικές δυνάμεις της αγοράς το iPhone ή μήπως κάθε στοιχείο της συγκεκριμένης συσκευής αναπτύχθηκε από προγράμματα δημοσίων πανεπιστημίων και ερευνητικών προγραμμάτων που σχετίζονταν με το κράτος (έρευνα οπλικών συστημάτων κτλ);

Μια σύντομη απάντηση δώσαμε στο ντοκιμαντέρ This is Not a Coup:


Όπως μας εξηγούσε η Βρετανίδα οικονομολόγος Αν Πέτιφορ, στα γυρίσματα του ντοκιμαντέρ «This is not a coup», ελάχιστες εταιρείες οφείλουν τόσα πολλά στον δημόσιο τομέα όσο το δημιούργημα του Στιβ Τζομπς.

«Ο κύριος Apple», μας έλεγε, «χρειαζόταν τις επενδύσεις της αμερικανικής κυβέρνησης προκειμένου να κατασκευάσει το iPhone. Ο ίδιος δεν είχε την απαιτούμενη επιχειρηματικότητα για να ανακαλύψει το Ιντερνετ ή όλα τα άλλα στοιχεία που αποτελούν το iPhone».

Η οικονομολόγος Μαριάνα Ματσουκάτο είχε αναλάβει μερικά χρόνια νωρίτερα να αναλύσει ένα προς ένα τα στοιχεία που αποτελούν κάθε συσκευή της Apple.

Και μέσα στο φαγωμένο μήλο της εταιρείας εντόπιζε πάντα αυτό που οι νεοφιλελεύθεροι θα αποκαλούσαν «το σκουλήκι του κράτους».

Στο βιβλίο της «The Entrepreneurial State» («Το κράτος του επιχειρείν») πραγματοποίησε μια εξαντλητική έρευνα για το πώς όλες σχεδόν οι μικροσυσκευές που χρησιμοποιούμε σήμερα οφείλουν την ύπαρξή τους σε ερευνητικά προγράμματα του Δημοσίου – είτε πρόκειται για πανεπιστήμια είτε για ερευνητικά κέντρα των ενόπλων δυνάμεων.

Το τηλέφωνο της Apple, παραδείγματος χάριν, οφείλει την οθόνη του σε παλαιότερες έρευνες του Πανεπιστήμιο του Ντέλαγουερ (το οποίο έχει δημόσια χρηματοδότηση), αλλά και σε εργασίες της… CIA.

Η ίδια συσκευή δεν θα είχε GPS εάν δεν είχαν ξενυχτήσει επιστήμονες του βρετανικού πολεμικού ναυτικού, αλλά και του υπουργείου Αμυνας των ΗΠΑ.

Όσο για την μπαταρία του, στηρίζεται σε τεχνολογία που αναπτύχθηκε από το αμερικανικό υπουργείο Ενέργειας και το εθνικό Ίδρυμα Ερευνών των Ηνωμένων Πολιτειών.

Όλα τα στοιχεία, λοιπόν, που συγκέντρωσε σε μία συσκευή ο καινοτόμος Στιβ Τζομπς είχαν πληρωθεί πολλά χρόνια νωρίτερα από φορολογούμενους σε όλο τον κόσμο και στη συνέχεια, αντί να γίνουν κτήμα όλων, ιδιωτικοποιήθηκαν και πέρασαν στα χέρια μεγάλων εταιρειών.

Ακόμη όμως και τα επενδυτικά προγράμματα, στα οποία εταιρείες όπως η Apple στήριξαν τις δραστηριότητές τους (δηλαδή την «απαλλοτρίωση» ξένων εφευρέσεων), δεν θα υπήρχαν χωρίς τις παρεμβάσεις της αμερικανικής ομοσπονδιακής κυβέρνησης.

«Σε περιόδους κρίσης», μας εξηγούσε η Αν Πέτιφορ, «οι ιδιώτες είναι σαν τα ποντίκια και οι κυβερνήσεις είναι σαν τα λιοντάρια, που είναι διατεθειμένα να αναλάβουν δράση παρά το ρίσκο. Ουσιαστικά τα κράτη γίνονται πολύ πιο επιχειρηματικά. Αντίθετα, είναι απίστευτο πόσο νευρικός και μη επιχειρηματικός γίνεται ο ιδιωτικός τομέας όταν οι συνθήκες δεν είναι ιδανικές».

Πηγή, σύνδεσμοι:


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