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Πως φτάσαμε από τους Πολωνούς υδραυλικούς στους Πολωνούς δικαστές

του Άρη Χατζηστεφάνου

To 2005 η δυτική Ευρώπη ανησυχούσε για την έλευση των Πολωνών υδραυλικών (έκφραση που λανσάρισε το Charlie Hebdo για να περιγράψει το φτηνό εργατικό δυναμικό που θα ερχόταν από την κεντρική Ευρώπη). Σχεδόν μια δεκαετία αργότερα η λέξη της μόδας είναι ο Πολωνός δικαστής.

Οι Έλληνες δικαστές, σε μια από τις πιο επιθετικές παρεμβάσεις τους στην πολιτική ζωή της χώρας συνέκριναν την Ελλάδα με την Τουρκία αλλά και την Πολωνία, όπου το κυβερνών κόμμα «Νόμος και Δικαιοσύνη» (PiS), επιχείρησε να αυξήσει τον έλεγχό που ασκεί επί του δικαστικού συστήματος της χώρας. Το Ποτάμι, που συνήθως αναμασά ιδέες που δεν καταλαβαίνει πλήρως, έκλεψε τη συγκεκριμένη φράση και την χρησιμοποίησε σε ανακοίνωσή του.

Τι ακριβώς συμβαίνει όμως με τους Πολωνούς δικαστές;

Δεν υπάρχει αμφιβολία ότι ο Γιάροσλαβ Κατσίνσκι, ο ηγέτης του κυβερνώντος κόμματος, ο οποίος ελέγχει de facto τη χώρα, επιλέγοντας τον πρωθυπουργό και τον πρόεδρο της Πολωνίας, αποτελεί άμεση απειλή για τη δημοκρατία.

Το πρόβλημα είναι ότι η επίθεση στους θεσμούς της χώρας έχει μακρά ιστορία. Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση όμως την παρακολουθούσε σιωπηλή καθώς η Πολωνία βρισκόταν ακόμη υπό τον γεωπολιτικό έλεγχο του Βερολίνου. Τα τελευταία δυο χρόνια ο Κατσίνσκι αφαίρεσε εξουσίες από το κοινοβούλιο και το συνταγματικό δικαστήριο, πήρε υπό τον απόλυτο έλεγχό του τις μυστικές υπηρεσίες και το στρατό και δημιούργησε ένα αστυνομικό κράτος. Παράλληλα, οι παρακρατικές, ακροδεξιές οργανώσεις ενισχύθηκαν σε στενή συνεργασία με το υπουργείο Άμυνας.

Ακόμη και τότε βέβαια η πολιτική του Κατσίνσκι ήταν ακόμη «συμβατή» με την ΕΕ. Οι νόμοι που προώθησε, παραδείγματος χάριν, για την απαγόρευση κομμουνιστικών συμβόλων και το ξαναγράψιμο της ιστορίας μέσω της εξίσωσης φασισμού – κομμουνισμού, δεν διέφεραν σε τίποτα από την επίσημη γραμμή των Βρυξελλών. Ούτε φυσικά από τις γραφίδες των Ελλήνων φιλελευθερων που τότε δεν είχνα τίποτα να του προσάψουν.

Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση θυμήθηκε τα ατομικά και συλλογικά δικαιώματα και τη δημοκρατία στην Πολωνία μόνο όταν ο Κατσίνσκι πέρασε ολοκληρωτικά στη σφαίρα επιρροής της Ουάσινγκτον. Για την ακρίβεια οι Βρυξέλλες αντέδρασαν όπως είχαν κάνει και με τον ακροδεξιό πρωθυπουργό της Ουγγαρίας, Βίκτρο Ορμπάν: θυμήθηκαν τις επιθέσεις που πραγματοποιούσε στη δημοκρατία μόνο όταν αυτός συγκρούστηκε με τον κεντρικό τραπεζίτη της χώρας που εξέφραζε τα συμφέροντα της Φρανκφούρτης.

Η σύγκρουση της ΕΕ με την Πολωνική κυβέρνηση κλιμακώθηκε μετά την πρόσφατη επίσκεψη του Ντόναλντ Τραμπ στη Βαρσοβία, όταν η χώρα μετατράπηκε σε προκεχωρημένο φυλάκιο των ΗΠΑ στην αντιπαράθεσή τους με το Βερολίνο.

Η εξέλιξη αυτή οδήγησε σε διχασμό και τις πολιτικές και οικονομικές ελίτ της Πολωνίας. Η φιλελεύθερη αντιπολίτευση, η οποία συνέχισε να κοιτάζει προς το Βερολίνο έπαιξε καθοριστικό ρόλο στις πρόσφατες αντικυβερνητικές διαδηλώσεις (χωρίς αυτό να μειώνει φυσικά ούτε κατ’ ελάχιστο το δίκαιο των αιτημάτων που εξέφραζαν οι διαδηλωτές).

Αντίθετα η κυβερνητική παράταξη πιστεύει ότι θα μπορέσει να κάμψει τις αντιδράσεις με αυταρχικά μέτρα ενώ παράλληλα οικοδομεί μια συμμαχία ακροδεξιών δυνάμεων στην ανατολική Ευρώπη, η οποία θα στρέφεται εναντίον της Ρωσίας αλλά σε δεύτερο βαθμό εναντίον του Βερολίνου – θα αποτελεί δηλαδή βασικό εργαλείο στην χάραξη της αμερικανικής εξωτερικής πολιτικής στην περιοχή.

Όσο για τους Πολωνούς δικαστές, που αίφνης παρουσιάζονται σαν σύμβολο της δημοκρατίας και της ελευθερίας, στην Πολωνία θεωρούνται ως ένας από τους πιο διεφθαρμένους θεσμούς της χώρας. Καλό θα είναι να το θυμούνται όσοι ταυτίζονται μαζί τους αποκρύπτοντας τις πραγματικές γεωπολιτικές εξελίξεις στο παρασκήνιο.

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