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Νέες ενδοϊμπεριαλιστικές αντιθέσεις στη Μέση Ανατολή

Στον 21ο αιώνα στα «ευρασιατικά Βαλκάνια» (Λίβανος, Παλαιστίνη, Συρία, Ιράν, Ιράκ), στην περιοχή του Κόλπου και στην ευρύτερη Μέση Ανατολή, μια περιοχή-εθνοτικό μωσαϊκό, εμπλέκονται άμεσα δύο βασικοί άξονες: Από τη μία ο ευρωατλαντικός, με διακριτά συμφέροντα κυρίως μεταξύ ΗΠΑ και Βρετανίας και με διακριτά ενεργό συμμετοχή πρωτίστως της Γαλλίας αλλά και Γερμανίας. Από την άλλη, ο άξονας Ρωσίας-Κίνας-Συρίας-Λιβάνου-Ιράν, με υπαρκτές αντιθέσεις στο εσωτερικό του.

του Αλέκου Αναγνωστάκη


Μέρος 4ο – Το «αραβικό ΝΑΤΟ» με στόχο το Ιράν

Πίσω από τον πάντα υπολογίσιμο σιϊτισμό του Ιράν και πίσω από τον ισχυρό σουνιτισμό της Σαουδικής Αραβίας, βρίσκονται οι πραγματικές αντιθέσεις ανάμεσα στα διάφορα κέντρα του ιμπεριαλισμού. Η ίδια η εσωτερική κόντρα των Σαούντ με τους Αλ-Θάνι, που κρατά εδώ και είκοσι χρόνια, είναι η κόντρα ανάμεσα σε αναδυόμενες ιμπεριαλιστικές δυνάμεις του Ιράν και της Σαουδικής Αραβίας. Οι ενέργειες του Ριάντ, των ΗΑΕ και άλλων αποτελούν μέρος μιας συντονισμένης προσπάθειας όχι συντριβής, αλλά πίεσης στο Κατάρ, ώστε να ευθυγραμμιστεί με τις σαουδαραβικές θέσεις για τη Μουσουλμανική Αδελφότητα και το Ιράν. Αυτό ωφελεί και τις ΗΠΑ.

Αυτό εξάλλου αποκαλύπτει και επιβεβαιώνει και η επίθεση της Σαουδικής Αραβίας το 2013, μέσω ενός περιφερειακού σουνιτικού συνασπισμού, εναντίον των Αδελφών Μουσουλμάνων στην Αίγυπτο, υποστηρίζοντας το αιματηρό στρατιωτικό πραξικόπημα που προκάλεσε ντόμινο αλλαγών. Μετά από αυτό, οι Αδελφοί Μουσουλμάνοι υποχωρούν. Παραδίνουν στην Τυνησία την «αρχή» σε μια κοσμική κυβέρνηση, παρακμάζουν στην Ιορδανία, υποχωρούν στη Συρία με ενδυνάμωση των τζιχαντιστών, περιορίζονται στη Λιβύη στην κατοχή της πρωτεύουσας και της δυτικής μόνο χώρας, υφίστανται διώξεις στις μοναρχίες του Περσικού Κόλπου. Τώρα, με «αιχμή» τους Σαούντ, επιχειρείται η επανασυγκρότηση και επαναλειτουργία του λεγόμενου αραβικού ΝΑΤΟ από τις μοναρχίες του Κόλπου, στην αντιπαράθεσή τους με το Ιράν.

Παρ’ όλα αυτά, το Κατάρ συνεχίζει να τηρεί ευνοϊκή στάση απέναντι στους Αδελφούς Μουσουλμάνους και στο Ιράν. Το δε παγκόσμιας εμβέλειας τηλεοπτικό κανάλι Al Jazeera, με έδρα τη Ντόχα, συνεχίζει τα δημοσιεύματα εναντίον των γειτονικών μοναρχιών. Συνεχίζει να στηρίζει τον ηγέτη της Χαμάς Αλ-Μεσάλ και τον εξοστρακισμένο κληρικό της Σαουδικής Αραβίας Καράνταγι, τη συνένωση του παρακλαδιού της Αλ-Κάιντα στη Συρία με 4 τζιχαντιστικές οργανώσεις για την δημιουργία της «Επιτροπής Απελευθέρωσης της Λεβαντίνης».

Σε αυτές του τις πρωτοβουλίες, εκτός του Ιράν, συνεπικουρείται και από την Τουρκία του Ερντογάν, του έτερου υποστηρικτή των Αδελφών Μουσουλμάνων. Στην τρέχουσα κρίση, η Τουρκία πραγματοποιεί σαφές άνοιγμα προς το Κατάρ. Η βουλή της ενέκρινε συμβολικά την αποστολή Τούρκων στρατιωτών στο έδαφός του και ο πρόεδρος του τουρκικού εμπορικού επιμελητηρίου στέλνει αεροπλάνα με τρόφιμα.

Η κοινή κλωστή που συνδέει Κατάρ, Τουρκία, Ιράν είναι τα τεράστια υλικά συμφέροντα και ο ρόλος τους στην ευρύτερη περιοχή, είναι η ιδιοδιαχείρηση τους. Δεν είναι δηλαδή οι αιρέσεις του Ισλάμ που τις χρησιμοποιούν με τρόπο ανάλογο με αυτόν που χρησιμοποιούν την ορθοδοξία, τον καθολικισμό, τον προτεσταντισμό για την εξυπηρέτηση των συμφερόντων τους τα δυτικά ιμπεριαλιστικά κέντρα. Η συνολική κατάσταση έχει να κάνει με μια χωρίς προηγούμενο διάβρωση του κοινωνικού ιστού, παρουσία πολιτικών ηγετών οι οποίοι αντί να ενώνουν, να δίνουν όραμα, συμβάλλουν στην αποσύνθεση.

Η αίσθησή δε που αποκομίζει κανείς ακόμη και στην αντιμετώπιση (και από τη «Δύση») των ισλαμικών οργανώσεων ως φονταμενταλιστικές και τρομοκρατικές, είναι πως αυτό γίνεται αδίστακτα και τελείως οπορτουνιστικά. Αρκεί αυτό να οδηγεί στη συμμόρφωση των μαζών στη νεοφιλελεύθερη αντίληψη δυτικής η ισλαμικής χρειάς. Αρκεί αυτό να απομακρύνει από μια στάση ζωής που μπορεί να διεκδικεί τα αιτήματα ελευθερίας, ισότητας και αξιοπρέπειας, μακριά από κάθε υποκριτική και εργαλειακή χρήση της θρησκείας, του εθνικισμού ή όποιου άλλου καταφυγίου.

Αυτός ο φαύλος κύκλος είναι δυνατό να σπάσει τελικά είτε από μια αδύνατο να προβλεφθεί κοινωνική καταστροφή στην ευρύτερη περιοχή είτε από ένα σύγχρονο ανερχόμενο απελευθερωτικό εργατικό και λαϊκό ρεύμα, αραβικής προφανώς καταγωγής.

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