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«Η Ελλάδα χρειάζεται κούρεμα χρέους όπως το 1953 η Γερμανία»

Ομάδα βρετανών και αμερικανών επιστημόνων καταλήγει στο συμπέρασμα ότι η Γερμανία οφείλει το οικονομικό θαύμα στο κούρεμα χρέους. «Σημασία δεν έχει τόσο αν πληροί μια χώρα τους όρους, αλλά εάν χρειάζεται κούρεμα».

Με αφορμή τις ατέρμονες διαπραγματεύσεις για να κλείσει η αξιολόγηση η εφημερίδα Handelsblatt επαναφέρει τη συζήτηση στη δυσεπίλυτη διαφωνία μεταξύ ΔΝΤ και Βόλφγκανγκ Σόιμπλε για τη βιωσιμότητα του ελληνικού χρέους, διαφωνία που δυσκολεύει την επίτευξη συμφωνίας ανάμεσα στους δανειστές και την Αθήνα. Επικαλούμενη διεθνείς οικονομολόγους, όπως τον γάλλο Τομά Πικετί και τον αμερικανό Τζέφρι Σαξ, η εφημερίδα υπενθυμίζει τη Συμφωνία του Λονδίνου, το 1953, με την οποία διαγράφηκαν τα χρέη της Γερμανίας και υποστηρίζει ότι η σημερινή κατάσταση της Ελλάδας θυμίζει σε πολλά εκείνη της μεταπολεμικής Γερμανίας, όταν η χώρα δεν μπορούσε να ξεπληρώσει τα χρέη της.

«Η Γερμανία οφείλει το οικονομικό θαύμα στο κούρεμα χρέους»

«Ιστορικοί της οικονομίας είναι πεπεισμένοι ότι το κούρεμα χρέους συνέβαλε αποφασιστικά στο να ξεπεράσει η οικονομικά γονατισμένη Γερμανία τις άλλες ευρωπαϊκές χώρες παρά το ότι επωφελήθηκαν περισσότερο από το σχέδιο Μάρσαλ, όπως τονίζει βρετανοαμερικανική ερευνητική ομάδα» σημειώνεται στο άρθρο, που παραπέμπει σε διαπιστώσεις του ΄Αλμπρεχτ Ρίτσι από το London School of Economics ότι η Γερμανία οφείλει το οικονομικό θαύμα, το σταθερό μάρκο και την ευνοϊκή θέση των δημοσιονομικών της στο δραστικό κούρεμα χρέους.

Η ερευνητική ομάδα εξέτασε με ποιο τρόπο η Συμφωνία του Λονδίνου επηρέασε τις δημόσιες δαπάνες και διαπίστωσε ότι με το κούρεμα του χρέους βελτιώθηκε η πιστοληπτική αξιοπιστία της χώρας. Η κυβέρνηση ήταν σε θέση να παίρνει νέα δάνεια με χαμηλά επιτόκια, ενώ από την έναρξη των διαπραγματεύσεων στα μέσα του 1951 μέχρι την κατάληξή τους τα επιτόκια κρατικών ομολόγων δεκαετούς διάρκειας έπεσαν από 3 σε 1,8%. Από αυτήν τη μείωση επωφελήθηκαν επίσης και οι επιχειρήσεις μειώνοντας παράλληλα τα έξοδά τους σε ξένο νόμισμα.

Και ο γερμανός δημοσιογράφος επισημαίνει: «Αυτό που η Γερμανία έπραξε με επιτυχία, δηλαδή να χρησιμοποιήσει την αυξημένη πιστοληπτική αξιοπιστία της για να πάρει νέα δάνεια, χρησιμοποιείται σήμερα από τη γερμανική πλευρά ως ένα από τα βασικά επιχειρήματα εναντίον ενός κουρέματος του ελληνικού χρέους, επειδή δεν υπάρχει εμπιστοσύνη ότι η Αθήνα θα χρησιμοποιήσει τα χρήματα επωφελώς. Αλλά και τότε υπήρχαν επικριτές της συμφωνίας που εξέφραζαν τον φόβο ότι το κούρεμα χρέους θα οδηγούσε τη γερμανική κυβέρνηση σε ασταθή δημοσιονομική πολιτική».

«Σημασία έχει εάν χρειάζεται ένα κούρεμα»

Στην έρευνα επισημαίνονται ωστόσο και οι διαφορές ανάμεσα στην μεταπολεμική Γερμανία και τη σημερινή Ελλάδα. Ότι τότε στο επίκεντρο τέθηκε η αποδοτικότητα της γερμανικής οικονομίας, ενώ σήμερα κυριαρχούν η εξυπηρέτηση του χρέους και η εφαρμογή των μέτρων λιτότητας και των μεταρρυθμίσεων. Οι διαφορές οφείλονται επίσης στο ότι τότε η Γερμανία ήταν σημαντικός εταίρος των ΗΠΑ κατά τον Ψυχρό Πόλεμο με τους Σοβιετικούς, ενώ η Ελλάδα δεν είναι τόσο σημαντική χώρα στη σημερινή παγκόσμια συγκυρία. Ωστόσο, κατά τον οικονομολόγο Τζέφρι Σαξ το αποφασιστικό δεν είναι εάν αξίζει μια χώρα ένα κούρεμα κι αν πληροί του όρους, κάτι δευτερεύον στις διαπραγματεύσεις στην περίπτωση της Γερμανίας, αλλά εάν μια χώρα χρειάζεται ένα κούρεμα, όπως ακριβώς τότε η Γερμανία – και σήμερα η Ελλάδα.

Γερμανοελληνικές συγκρίσεις κάνει και η εφημερίδα Bild, αυτή τη φορά με αφορμή την έναρξη της θερμής φάσης του προεκλογικού αγώνα στη Ρηνανία Βεστφαλία. Ο αρθρογράφος της επισημαίνει ότι το κρατίδιο με 180 εκ. χρέος είναι ο βασιλιάς του χρέους στη Γερμανία, όπως είναι και η Ελλάδα στην ευρωζώνη. Και επικαλείται τον επικεφαλής του Ινστιτούτου IFO του Μονάχου Κλέμενς Φουστ που καταλογίζει αδυναμίες στην ανάπτυξη, όπως ακριβώς συμβαίνει και στην Ελλάδα.

Τέλος η ελβετική Neue Zürcher Zeitung παρουσιάζει τη ζωή του Αργύρη Σφουντούρη, του τετράχρονου τότε επιζώντα από τη σφαγή του Διστόμου το 1944, με αφορμή την παρουσίαση αύριο από τον ίδιο του βιβλίου του «Είμαι ακόμη εκείνο το τετράχρονο αγόρι» στο θέατρο Stock της Ζυρίχης.

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