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Καρλ Μαρξ: «Εγώ ποτέ δεν είπα κάτι τέτοιο»

Η μανία με την οποία επιτίθεται ο φιλελεύθερος αγγλοσαξονικός Τύπος στα fake news, τις ψεύτικες ειδήσεις που υποτίθεται ότι κατακλύζουν το διαδίκτυο, είχε πρόσφατα ακόμη ένα θύμα. Αίφνης όλοι διαπίστωσαν ότι το Ιντερνετ είναι γεμάτο με ψεύτικα αποφθέγματα ιστορικών προσωπικοτήτων. Μόνο που το συγκεκριμένο πρόβλημα έχει ιστορία αρκετών αιώνων.

του Άρη Χατζηστεφάνου

Tην ημέρα των 208ων γενεθλίων του Αβραάμ Λίνκολν ο Ντόναλντ Τραμπ αναπαρήγαγε στο Τwitter μια διάσημη φράση του 16ου προέδρου των ΗΠΑ: «Στο τέλος, σημασία δεν έχουν τα χρόνια που είχε η ζωή σου αλλά η ζωή που είχαν τα χρόνια σου». Το πρόβλημα, όπως σωστά έσπευσε να επισημάνει το BBC, ήταν ότι ο Λίνκολν ουδέποτε είπε κάτι τέτοιο.

Το περιστατικό συμπεριλήφθηκε αμέσως στα δεκάδες ψέματα που εκστομίζει ανερυθρίαστα ο Τραμπ σε κάθε δημόσια εμφάνισή του. Σχεδόν κανένας όμως δεν θέλησε να μας θυμίσει ότι σχεδόν όλοι οι Αμερικανοί πρόεδροι των τελευταίων δεκαετιών χρησιμοποιούσαν ψευδή ή εμφανώς παραποιημένα αποφθέγματα τα οποία απέδιδαν στον Λίνκολν.

Ο Ρόναλντ Ρίγκαν του απέδιδε τη φράση «Δεν μπορείς να ενισχύσεις τον αδύναμο αποδυναμώνοντας τον ισχυρό», η οποία ήταν απόλυτα συμβατή με τη νεοφιλελεύθερη κοσμοθεωρία του γελαδάρη προέδρου, αλλά δεν ειπώθηκε ποτέ από τον Λίνκολν.

Ο Ομπάμα παραπληροφορούσε, συνειδητά ή ασυνείδητα, το ακροατήριό του αποδίδοντας στον Λίνκολν τη φράση «Δεν είμαι προορισμένος να κερδίσω αλλά είμαι προορισμένος να είμαι αληθινός». Το αποκορύφωμα όμως ήταν ο Μπιλ Κλίντον, ο οποίος του απέδωσε την παρακάτω φράση: «Μπορείς να κοροϊδέψεις όλους τους ανθρώπους για κάποιο χρονικό διάστημα και κάποιους ανθρώπους για πάντα, αλλά δεν μπορείς να κοροϊδεύεις όλους τους ανθρώπους συνέχεια».

Πριν σπεύσετε να υποστηρίξετε ότι ο Κλίντον εμπνεύστηκε τη φράση ακούγοντας Μπομπ Μάρλεϊ υπό την επήρεια μαλακών ναρκωτικών, να διευκρινίσουμε ότι το απόφθεγμα υπάρχει, ανήκει πιθανότατα στον Γάλλο προτεστάντη Ζακ Αμπαντιέ και χρονολογείται από τον 17ο αιώνα. Σε καμία περίπτωση όμως δεν ειπώθηκε από τον Λίνκολν.

Σε αρκετές περιπτώσεις τέτοιου είδους λάθη είναι αθώα και οφείλονται σε παρεξηγήσεις. To γεγονός, παραδείγματος χάριν, ότι αποδίδεται λανθασμένα στον Βολταίρο η φράση «Διαφωνώ με αυτό που λες αλλά θα υπερασπιστώ μέχρι θανάτου το δικαίωμά σου να το λες» (η οποία ανήκει στη βιογράφο του, Εβελιν Μπέατρις Χολ) δεν έρχεται σε σύγκρουση με το πνεύμα του Γάλλου φιλοσόφου.

Τις περισσότερες φορές όμως οι ψευδείς αναφορές χρησιμοποιούνται για να «επιβεβαιώσουν» την κυρίαρχη αφήγηση για ιστορικά πρόσωπα, ενώ αποσιωπούν τις πιο ριζοσπαστικές πτυχές της προσωπικότητάς τους.

Ακόμη μάλιστα και μεταξύ ψευδών ή ανεπιβεβαίωτων αποφθεγμάτων, κυριαρχούν αυτά που συνάδουν με την καθεστηκυία τάξη. Ελάχιστοι λόγου χάριν αναφέρονται στην αμφισβητούμενη φράση του Μαχάτμα Γκάντι «Η φτώχεια είναι η χειρότερη μορφή βίας» – παρά το γεγονός ότι του την αποδίδει το Διεθνές Ινστιτούτο Ερευνών Ειρήνης. Αντίθετα, πολλοί παπαγαλίζουν τη φράση «Να είσαι η αλλαγή που θέλεις να δεις στον κόσμο», η οποία θυμίζει περισσότερο τις αμπελοφιλοσοφίες του Πάουλο Κοέλιο («Οταν θέλεις κάτι, όλο το σύμπαν συνωμοτεί για να τα καταφέρεις»).

Για την ακρίβεια, όπως υποστήριζαν οι New York Times, η συγκεκριμένη «απολίτικη» φράση ταιριάζει τέλεια «σαν αυτοκόλλητο στο πίσω μέρος ενός Nissan Prius», αλλά ο Γκάντι πίστευε ακριβώς το αντίθετο: ότι η προσωπική αλλαγή δεν αρκεί αν δεν συνδυάζεται με τον κοινωνικό μετασχηματισμό.

Στην Ελλάδα, μια από τις δημοφιλέστερες φράσεις που ουδέποτε ειπώθηκαν αποδίδεται στον ποιητή Γιάννη Ρίτσο, που φέρεται να είπε «Τα σοβιετικά τανκς χόρευαν βαλς (για άλλους τανγκό) στην Πράγα (ή στη Βουδαπέστη)». Ο ποιητής δηλαδή υποτίθεται ότι χαιρετίζει είτε την καταστολή της επανάστασης στην Ουγγαρία το 1956, είτε τη σοβιετική εισβολή στην Τσεχοσλοβακία το 1968.

Όπως απέδειξε όμως ο Νίκος Σαραντάκος, αυτό που πραγματικά είχε πει ο Ρίτσος ήταν ότι κατά τη διάρκεια μιας στρατιωτικής παρέλασης το 1977 στη Μόσχα, «τα τανκς πέρασαν κι αυτά μ’ έναν ρυθμό χορευτικό».

Η παρανόηση πιθανότατα προκλήθηκε όταν ο Νίκος Πουλαντζάς, ο Κώστας Βεργόπουλος και ο Κων. Τσουκαλάς απάντησαν σε ιδιαίτερα επιθετικό τόνο στο Ρίτσο, θέτοντας το ερώτημα: «Γιάννη Ρίτσο, η εισβολή των σοβιετικών τανκς στην Πράγα το 1968 έγινε μήπως με τον ίδιο αξιαγάπητο και χορευτικό ρυθμό;».

Το ερώτημα είναι αν θα είχε επικρατήσει η συγκεκριμένη παρανόηση εάν δεν ταυτιζόταν με την κυρίαρχη αφήγηση που προωθούσαν, για τον κομμουνιστή ποιητή, τόσο η ελληνική Δεξιά όσο και η ανανεωτική Αριστερά.

Ο Τραμπ λοιπόν μπορεί να είναι αποδεδειγμένα ψεύτης με περικεφαλαία, αλλά σε ό,τι αφορά τα αποφθέγματα, απλώς συνεχίζει την πολυετή παράδοση προηγούμενων προέδρων: αποδίδει ό,τι θέλει σε όποιον θέλει.

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