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Οι εκατομμυριούχοι εγκαταλείπουν τις μεγαλουπόλεις (και την Αθήνα)

του Μιχάλη Γιαννεσκή

Οι αστοί τρομάξανε και κάστρα φτιάξανε. Πρόσφατες εξελίξεις δείχνουν ότι ο στίχος από το τραγούδι σχετικά με την απόδραση αριστερών από τις φυλακές Συγγρού κατά τη δεκαετία του 1930, μάλλον παραμένει επίκαιρος. Όμως στη σύγχρονη συγκυρία, η πλουτοκρατία του 1% που κατέχει το 50% του παγκόσμιου πλούτου είναι αυτή που σχεδιάζει «απόδραση» από τα αστικά κέντρα, και τα «κάστρα» που φτιάχνει προορίζονται για την αυτοφυλάκιση της σε απόμερα και δυσπρόσιτα καταφύγια ή σε θωρακισμένα υπόγεια.

Εγκατέλειψαν την Αθήνα 2.000 εκατομμυριούχοι

Η πρόσφατη έκθεση του New World Wealth δείχνει ότι πολλοί εκατομμυριούχοι έχουν αρχίσει να εγκαταλείπουν τις μεγαλουπόλεις. Η μεγαλύτερη έξοδος εκατομμυριούχων παρατηρείται από το Παρίσι (7.000 άτομα) και ακολουθούν κατά σειρά η Ρώμη (5.000), το Σικάγο (3.000) και η Αθήνα (2.000).

Σύμφωνα με την παραπάνω έκθεση, 22.000 εκατομμυριούχοι διέμεναν στην Αθήνα και 55.000 σε ολόκληρη την Ελλάδα το 2015, από τους οποίους το 9% και 5%, αντίστοιχα, έφυγαν από τη χώρα κατά τη διάρκεια του χρόνου. Το New World Wealth εκτιμά ότι η φυγή των εκατομμυριούχων θα επιταχυνθεί τα επόμενα 10 χρόνια, κυρίως από τη Γαλλία, αλλά επίσης και από το Βέλγιο, τη Γερμανία, τη Σουηδία την Βρετανία , την Ιταλία, την Ισπανία και την Ελλάδα.

Οι κύριοι λόγοι για την φυγή των πλουσίων από τις παραπάνω πόλεις είναι η αύξηση των θρησκευτικών εντάσεων, οι τρομοκρατικές ενέργειες και η οικονομική κρίση στην Ευρώπη, όπως και οι ταραχές σε πολλές αμερικανικές πόλεις μετά από τις δολοφονίες νέγρων από την αστυνομία. Ένας πρώην διευθυντής hedge fund, ο Robert Johnson, εξηγούσε πέρυσι στο Νταβός τι ανησυχεί τους πλούσιους: πολλοί από αυτούς βλέπουν την κοινωνική αστάθεια να αυξάνεται και φοβούνται ότι θα υπάρξουν αναταραχές και εξεγέρσεις, σαν αυτές στις ΗΠΑ.

Τα νέα καταφύγια των πλουσίων

Η Βρετανία και οι ΗΠΑ είναι οι πιο δημοφιλείς προορισμοί για τους εκατομμυριούχους που έφυγαν από το Παρίσι, τη Ρώμη και την Αθήνα. Και οι δύο χώρες προσφέρουν φορολογικά και άλλα προνόμια στην εισερχόμενη πλουτοκρατία, αλλά οι πόλεις τους παραμένουν ευάλωτες σε κοινωνικές αναταραχές (παράδειγμα στο Λονδίνο το 2011, και στις ΗΠΑ στο Όκλαντ 2010, Άναχαιμ 2012, Φέργκιουσον 2014, και Βαλτιμόρη 2015).

Συνεπώς, για αρκετούς πλούσιους, όσο μεγαλύτερη είναι η απόσταση από πιθανά κέντρα ταραχών, τόσο περισσότερη η αίσθηση ασφάλειας που παρέχει. Για αυτό το λόγο μερικοί έχουν αγοράσει φάρμες με αεροδιάδρομους σε απόμερα μέρη σαν τη Νέα Ζηλανδία.

Για όσους προτιμούν να παραμείνουν στις μεγαλουπόλεις ή κοντά στην πηγή του πλούτου τους, μια εναλλακτική λύση είναι το ιδιωτικό καταφύγιο. Η εταιρεία Vivos προσφέρει τέτοια υπόγεια καταφύγια σε διάφορες τοποθεσίες. Στη Γερμανία, έχει διαμορφώσει καταφύγιο με εμβαδόν 21.000 τ.μ.. Στην Ινδιάνα των ΗΠΑ η εταιρεία προσφέρει πολυτελές πυρηνικό καταφύγιο που μπορεί να αντέξει ακόμα και έκρηξη βόμβας 20 μεγατόνων. Ενώ για αυτούς που δεν θέλουν να εγκαταλείψουν το σπίτι τους, η εταιρεία κάνει εγκαταστάσεις «οικιακών» καταφυγίων.

Πολύ περισσότερο διαδεδομένα είναι τα «ασφαλή» δωμάτια (Safe Rooms). Αυτά αποτελούν ειδικά ενισχυμένα και θωρακισμένα δωμάτια στα οποία μπορεί να καταφύγει κανείς σε περίπτωση ταραχών, επίθεσης ή ακόμα και διάρρηξης της κατοικίας του.

Ασφάλεια με αντίτιμο την αυτοφυλάκιση

Τα παραπάνω καταφύγια θυμίζουν τα αντίστοιχα των «νονών» της ιταλικής Μαφίας: τα διασκευασμένα υπόγεια μέσα στα οποία κρυβόντουσαν από τις αρχές. Οι μαφιόζοι ηγέτες προτιμούσαν την αυτοφυλάκιση σε τέτοια καταφύγια, αντί να αντιμετωπίσουν τη δικαιοσύνη και να φυλακιστούν σε κανονικές φυλακές.

Οι εκατομμυριούχοι που «διαφεύγουν» σε καταφύγια, κάνουν μια παρόμοια επιλογή. Για να αποφύγουν πιθανές εκρήξεις οργής της κοινωνίας, και για να μη βρεθούν αντιμέτωποι με τις επιπτώσεις της ανισότητας από την οποία έχουν θησαυρίσει, προτιμούν την αυτοφυλάκιση τους σε πολυτελή και απόμερα καταφύγια.

Το ερώτημα είναι εάν αυτά τα καταφύγια μπορούν να παρέχουν στους ιδιοκτήτες τους κάτι παραπάνω εκτός από ένα πρόσκαιρο άσυλο. Γιατί, όπως σχολιάζει το ποίημα του Τζον Ντον, «Κανένας άνθρωπος δεν είναι νησί, ακέριος μοναχός του».

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