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Το σύγχρονο Bankspeak και το οργουελικό Newspeak

του Τάσου Τσακίρογλου

Την ιδέα της «αποικιοποίησης του ανθρώπινου φαντασιακού από την πρόοδο» την έχει αναπτύξει εδώ και χρόνια ο Σερζ Λατούς.

Ο Γάλλος φιλόσοφος και οικονομολόγος έχει αναλύσει εκτενώς στα βιβλία του το πώς ο μύθος της αέναης προόδου, η οποία ταυτίζεται αποκλειστικά με την οικονομική μεγέθυνση, έχει εμποτίσει την κοινωνική συνείδηση, συμβάλλοντας αποφασιστικά για δεκαετίες στη γιγάντωση της κατανάλωσης μέσω της διαρκούς επέκτασης της παραγωγής και της διαφήμισης.

Στην περίοδο της κρίσης πολλοί είναι εκείνοι που θυμούνται τα χρόνια της ανάπτυξης (και της κατανάλωσης) με ένα αίσθημα νοσταλγίας και μια πίκρα που αφήνει η αίσθηση του χαμένου παραδείσου. Ετσι εξηγείται και το γιατί πολλοί ήταν έτοιμοι να ακούσουν στο παρελθόν ότι «λεφτά υπάρχουν» ή ότι μια αναδιανομή πλούτου είναι εφικτή, αρκεί να τοποθετηθούν οι κατάλληλοι άνθρωποι στην κυβέρνηση.

Πρόκειται για μια οιονεί μεταφυσική πίστη που θέλει να αγνοεί τα πραγματικά δεδομένα και αρκείται στην επαναφορά του status quo ante. Είναι δηλαδή προσανατολισμένη στο παρελθόν και όχι στο μέλλον.

Ετσι, είναι καθησυχαστική, αφού δεν απαιτεί από τους πολίτες διαρκή επαγρύπνηση, κινητοποίηση, επιλογές και ανάληψη ευθύνης. Είναι μια πράξη που προσομοιάζει στο τηλεοπτικό ζάπινγκ, αφού με το πάτημα ενός κουμπιού (συγκεκριμένα της ψήφου) μπορούμε ν’ αλλάξουμε το μενού της πραγματικότητας και να πάμε από το «θρίλερ» στη «ρομαντική κομεντί».

Την έννοια του «εποικισμού» ήρθε να μου τη θυμίσει μια συνέντευξη του ποιητή Θοδωρή Χιώτη, ανθολόγου της ποιητικής συλλογής «Εικόνες από το μέλλον: τα ποιήματα για την ελληνική κρίση».

Ο φιλόλογος και μεταφραστής αναφέρει εύστοχα ότι «η γλώσσα των οικονομικών συναλλαγών έχει “εποικήσει” την καθημερινότητά μας» και προσθέτει ότι τα ποιήματα της ανθολογίας «θέλουν να θέσουν ερωτήματα γύρω από τις βεβαιότητες, αλλά και τον απάνθρωπο χαρακτήρα μιας τέτοιας γλώσσας». Ονομάζει δε αυτή την απάνθρωπη γλώσσα «bankspeak», γλώσσα δηλαδή που χρησιμοποιείται στις οικονομικές συναλλαγές.

Η αναφορά παραπέμπει έμμεσα στη Newspeak στο «1984» του Οργουελ. Στο ολοκληρωτικό κράτος, στην προσπάθεια να ελεγχθεί και, τελικά, να καταργηθεί η σκέψη, χρησιμοποιείται η γλώσσα. Η εξουσία ετοιμάζει τη «Νέα Ομιλία».

Ο Οργουελ με το στόμα του Σάιμ αναφέρει:

[...] η Νέα Ομιλία είναι η μόνη γλώσσα στον κόσμο που το λεξιλόγιό της λιγοστεύει κάθε χρόνο [...]», για να προσθέσει: «[...] ο σκοπός της Νέας Ομιλίας είναι να στενέψει τα όρια της σκέψης. Στο τέλος θα κάνουμε κυριολεκτικά αδύνατο το έγκλημα της σκέψης, γιατί δεν θα υπάρχουν λέξεις για να το εκφράσει κανείς [...]

Φυσικά στις μέρες μας δεν έχουμε ολοκληρωτικό κράτος, αλλά μια ολοκληρωτική αντίληψη σε επίπεδο κοινωνίας, με την απόλυτη κυριαρχία της οικονομικής «επιστήμης», της στατιστικής, της λογιστικής και της ποσοτικής αντιμετώπισης των πάντων. Ολα αποτιμώνται σε χρήμα, όλα χρήζουν «αξιοποίησης», όλα είναι μετρήσιμα και εμπορεύσιμα. Ακόμα και οι ζωές μας, εμείς οι ίδιοι. Αξιολόγηση, ΑΕΠ, χρέος, έλλειμμα, λιτότητα, περιοριστική πολιτική, αξιόχρεο, έσοδα, έξοδα και πάει λέγοντας.

Ομως όσο πιο πολύ μετράμε τόσο πιο πολλά (από την πραγματική ζωή) χάνουμε. Τόσο λιγοστεύει η ποιότητα και ό,τι συνδέεται μαζί της: ανθρώπινες σχέσεις, δικαιώματα, πρόσβαση στη γνώση, ελεύθερος χρόνος, ανθρώπινα γηρατειά. Ωρα λοιπόν για απο-αποικιοποίηση του μυαλού και της σκέψης μας από τον οικονομισμό και τη βία που ασκεί πάνω μας.

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