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Τα blowback της Τουρκίας

του Άρη Χατζηστεφάνου

O ήχος από την πρώτη έκρηξη έκανε τα τζάμια του γραφείου μου να τρίξουν τόσο δυνατά που πίστευα ότι θα σπάσουν. Λίγα λεπτά αργότερα, ένας δεύτερος, πιο υπόκωφος κρότος μαρτυρούσε ότι μια δεύτερη έκρηξη είχε σημειωθεί σε λίγο μεγαλύτερη απόσταση. Το ημερολόγιο έγραφε 20 Νοεμβρίου του 2003 και η Κωνσταντινούπολη γνώριζε δύο από τις πιο πολύνεκρες βομβιστικές επιθέσεις της πρόσφατης ιστορίας της: 30 νεκροί και τουλάχιστον 400 τραυματίες από το διπλό τρομοκρατικό χτύπημα στο βρετανικό προξενείο και στην τράπεζα HSBC.

Τότε, όπως και τώρα, οι πρώτες διαρροές άφηναν να εννοηθεί ότι πίσω από την επίθεση μπορεί να βρίσκονται και κουρδικές οργανώσεις. Τότε, όπως και τώρα, όμως, αποδεικνύεται ότι οι δράστες είναι πιθανότατα παλιοί γνώριμοι του τουρκικού κράτους.

Οι στόχοι των επιθέσεων του 2003 στην Κωνσταντινούπολη και του 2015 στην Αγκυρα ήταν τελείως διαφορετικοί. Στην πρώτη περίπτωση χτυπήθηκαν βρετανικοί στόχοι, την ημέρα που ο Τόνι Μπλερ συναντούσε τον Τζορτζ Μπους στο Λονδίνο για να συζητήσουν τις εξελίξεις στο Ιράκ. Οι Αγγλοσάξονες χρειάζονταν τότε μια δικαιολογία για να κλιμακώσουν τις αντιτρομοκρατικές επιχειρήσεις τους και (συμπτωματικά;) τη βρήκαν στην Τουρκία.

Φέτος, τα θύματα ήταν μέλη αριστερών και κουρδικών οργανώσεων που διαδήλωναν για τον τερματισμό των επιθέσεων στους Κούρδους.

Η τουρκική κυβέρνηση χρειαζόταν ένα μέσο για να αποσταθεροποιήσει το πολιτικό σκηνικό πριν από τις κρίσιμες εκλογές του Νοεμβρίου αλλά και μια αφορμή για να κλιμακώσει τις επιχειρήσεις της στο μέτωπο της Συρίας. Και οι επιθέσεις αυτοκτονίας στην Αγκυρα (συμπτωματικά;) της έδωσαν και τα δύο. Οσο διαφορετικά κι αν ήταν όμως τα θύματα των επιθέσεων, υπάρχουν αρκετά στοιχεία που συνδέουν τις ιστορίες των δραστών.

Λίγα εικοσιτετράωρα μετά τις επιθέσεις του 2003, το ενδιαφέρον όλων των ξένων ανταποκριτών στην Κωνσταντινούπολη στράφηκε στο Μπινγκιόλ – μια μικρή πόλη 100.000 κατοίκων, περίπου 1.300 χλμ. νοτιοανατολικά της Κωνσταντινούπολης.

Αναζητούσαμε τις οικογένειες των δραστών για να σχηματίσουμε το προφίλ των βομβιστών αυτοκτονίας αλλά, όπως συμβαίνει πολύ συχνά σε τέτοιες περιπτώσεις, βρεθήκαμε μπροστά σ’ ένα από τα καλύτερα κρυμμένα μυστικά της Τουρκίας: τους «μουτζαχεντίν» του κοσμικού κράτους της Τουρκίας.

Οπως αποδείχτηκε, οι περισσότεροι από τους δράστες των επιθέσεων είχαν θητεύσει στην τουρκική Χεζμπολάχ – την οργάνωση φανατικών ισλαμιστών στην οποία το τουρκικό κράτος είχε στηρίξει τον βρόμικο πόλεμο εναντίον του PKK.

Αδιαφορώντας για το γεγονός ότι η οργάνωση είχε ιδρυθεί με στόχο την εγκαθίδρυση ισλαμικής δημοκρατίας στην Τουρκία, το κοσμικό κράτος συνέχιζε να την τροφοδοτεί με χρήματα και οπλισμό μέχρι τα τέλη της δεκαετίας του ’90. Χιλιάδες Κούρδοι μαχητές αλλά και μετριοπαθή στοιχεία του πολιτικού Ισλάμ δολοφονήθηκαν από τους εκτελεστές της οργάνωσης.

Ακόμη και μετά τα μέσα της δεκαετίας του ’90, όταν άρχισε σταδιακά να χάνει την πολιτική της χρησιμότητα για τις δυνάμεις ασφαλείας, η Χεζμπολάχ συνέχισε να αναπτύσσεται. Πιστεύεται ότι μέχρι το 1999 αριθμούσε 20.000 μέλη, μεταξύ των οποίων εκατοντάδες εκτελεστές.

Πιθανότατα αυτό που τρόμαζε περισσότερο τα διεθνή μέσα ενημέρωσης δεν ήταν οι «αποκαλύψεις» για τις σχέσεις του τουρκικού στρατού με οργανώσεις όπως η Χεζμπολάχ. Ηταν ότι, μπροστά στα μάτια τους, ξετυλιγόταν ακόμη μία περίπτωση συνεργασίας της Δύσης με τα πλέον αντιδραστικά στοιχεία του Ισλάμ.

Θυμήθηκα εκείνη την ιστορία την περασμένη εβδομάδα μόλις η τουρκική αστυνομία ανακοίνωσε ότι ταυτοποίησε τους δράστες της επίθεσης στην Αγκυρα. Αυτή τη φορά οι ξένοι ανταποκριτές δεν έτρεχαν στο Μπινγκιόλ αλλά στο Γκαζιαντέπ – όπου έζησαν και μεγάλωσαν οι βομβιστές πριν ενταχθούν, όπως όλα δείχνουν, στις δυνάμεις του ISIS. Για άλλη μια φορά όμως ήταν γνωστοί των τουρκικών αρχών ασφαλείας.

Ο πρώτος, ο Γιουνούς Εμρέ Αλαγκιόζ, είναι ο μεγαλύτερος αδερφός του βομβιστή που σκότωσε 33 άτομα τον Ιούλιο. Ο δεύτερος ύποπτος, ο Ομέρ Ντενίζ Ντουντάρ, παρακολουθούνταν από τις μυστικές υπηρεσίες της Τουρκίας αφού ταξίδεψε στη Συρία το 2013 και το 2014. Ο πατέρας του τελευταίου δήλωσε ότι είχε προειδοποιήσει την αστυνομία για τον γιο του αλλά αυτοί τον απελευθέρωσαν αφού του έκαναν απλώς μερικές ερωτήσεις.

Ακόμη ένα κατασκοπευτικό blowback ξεδιπλωνόταν μπροστά στα μάτια μας. Οπως οι ΗΠΑ δημιούργησαν το φαινόμενο Οσάμα μπιν Λάντεν, ενισχύοντας τους μουτζαχεντίν στο Αφγανιστάν ή όπως το Ισραήλ ανέχτηκε τη δημιουργία της Χαμάς, ως αντίβαρο στην ισχύ της κοσμικής, αριστερής Φατάχ του Γιάσερ Αραφάτ, έτσι και η Τουρκία γίνεται θύμα βομβιστικών επιθέσεων από οργανώσεις που η ίδια εξέθρεψε τα τελευταία χρόνια.

Με μια διαφορά: ένα πραγματικό blowback σημειώνεται όταν η επιχείρηση στρέφεται εναντίον εκείνων που τη διέταξαν. Στην περίπτωση του ISIS που μάχεται τους Κούρδους, η Τουρκία, η Ε.Ε. και οι ΗΠΑ θα χρειαστεί να προσπαθήσουν λίγο περισσότερο για να μας πείσουν ότι δεν βρίσκονται στην ίδια πλευρά με τους τζιχαντιστές.

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